11 Aug

The Spirit of Coffee – Coffees of the World

Ever wonder where the coffee beans in your morning coffee come from? You probably know words like Arabica and Robusta in terms of taste, but did you know that these words can also tell us where those coffees were grown? Here is a look at three of the world’s best specialty coffees and the regions in which they originated. Read on to discover the rich history of these coffees.

Yemen Arabian Mocca

Grown in the mountainous region of Sanani in south Yemen at an altitude in excess of 4,500 ft, Arabian Mocca is the world’s oldest cultivated coffee, distinguished by its richness and full body with chocolate undertones. Yemen is on Asia’s Arabian peninsula, a stone’s throw from Africa. Since there are no other Arabian coffees, it is classified as part of the family tastes of North African coffees.

It is here that the term “mocca” was coined. Its correct spelling is Mokha, for the port city that Yemen coffees ship from. Yemen’s arid climate contributes to the production of one of the best-loved specialty coffees that led Europeans to fall in love with coffee many centuries ago.

Yemeni coffee is one of the most distinct and prized coffees in the world. It’s been called a “wild” or natural cup, earthy, complex, pungent — to some it may be strange and bitter. This coffee can also be characterized as dry, winey, and acidic with chocolate and fruit undertones, rustic flavors, and intense aromas.

(Source: http://www.sweetmarias.com/coffee.arabia.yemen.html)

Mexico “Spirit of the Aztec”

The state of Veracruz produces many average coffees in its low-lying regions, but atop the tall mountains near the city of Coatepec an excellent Arabica bean coffee called Altura Coatepec reigns. The word Altura itself means “high grown”. Altura Pluma indicates the finest coffee of Mexico. Coetepec, a coffee district of Veracruz, provides particularly outstanding coffee beans. Mexican Altura beans have a full medium body, fine acidity, a wonderful bouquet and a satisfying flavor that is mild and sweet. This fine Mexican coffee is noted for delivering a consistently smooth taste and fragrant flavor with good body, depth, and overall balance. It is likely one of the most underappreciated coffees around.

Mexican coffee botanists celebrate Mexico’s highest altitudes (with their approximately one hundred species of Arabica coffee plants) as the finest region of all the world’s gourmet coffees. An inferior grade of coffee bean known Robusta grows at lower altitudes. Mexico itself produces huge quantities of these unremarkable coffee beans, often utilized as dark roasts, supermarket coffees and beans for blending.

Arabica coffee arrived in Mexico at the start of the nineteenth century from the West Indies. Today, Mexico ranks among the world’s top coffee exporters. Most Mexican coffee is processed by the wet method to ensure better acidity and body. Mexican coffee is graded based on the altitude where it is grown. The plantations of Veracruz account for 60 to 70 percent of the Mexican coffee crop. Approximately 5 million bags of coffee a year originate in Mexico. Most of the better beans are grown on large plantations in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Guerrero. These are producers of “high-grown” Altura Coatepec coffees, among the finest coffees grown in the Americas.

Their flavor is light and nutty with medium acidity and a mild, well-balanced body. With a fine chocolate tang and a hint of sweet undertone beneath the finish, these coffees make an ideal beverage for those of us who enjoy a smooth, mellow-tasting brew that is not overpowering. Altura’s smoothness produces many loyalists of the coffee drinkers who sample it. Mexican Altura Coatepec is an incredible morning coffee, as it could be used in a blend to tone down accompanying fuller-bodied coffees, or better yet, alone for the pure regional flavor.

(Source: http://www.coffeeuniverse.com/world_coffee_latin.html)

Java “Dutch Estate”

As a synonym of coffee, “java” introduced itself in the seventeenth century when the Dutch began cultivating coffee trees on the island of Java (part of the islands of Indonesia) and successfully exported it globally. Often the standard by which all other coffees are measured, Java’s finest golden beans are roasted to yield a piquant aroma, displaying an exquisite acid balance, a heavy body with chocolate undertones, and a lighter finish than Sumatran.

At one time the island of Java was ruled by sultans and dominated by mysticism. The early Dutch settlers who came in the late 17th century found Java to be a wonderfully diverse place with high mountains, thick tropical rain forests and a sultry climate that revolved around the monsoon rains. The Dutch and the Javanese settled the coastal volcanic plains, while much of the interior of the island was left to the jungle and a few tribal groups. The Dutch found that coffee grew very well in this climate, and began to set up plantations around their initial foothold in Batavia (modern day Jakarta). Initially Arabica coffees were planted, but many of these were killed by the coffee rust plague that devastated the region in the 1800’s. Robusta was the logical replacement — a tough plant resistant to many diseases.

Eventually the Dutch plantation owners conquered Java and took on the elements. Large plantations were established in the east of the island, as well as in Central Java and the west. After the Japanese occupied Java in the 1940’s many of these plantations were destroyed or absorbed back into the jungle with their owners imprisoned by the Japanese. After the war and the ensuing independence struggle, many of the larger plantations ended up under the control of the government. Today the big Java plantations (such as Nusantara XII) are still government-owned. However there are many medium and smaller growers who produce excellent quality Arabica beans. These coffees are known as “Government Estate” Java. They are primarily produced at 4 old farms (Kayumas, Blawan, Djampit, Pancoer). The Government body grows about 85% of the coffee in East Java, close to Bali on the Ijen area. The range of altitudes suitable for coffee production is 3,000 to 6,000 feet, with most growing in the plateau region at 4,500 feet.

11 Aug

Arenas Weight Loss Drug Lorcaserin Rejected By Fda Panel

The FDA Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committe turned down Arena Pharmaceutical and its partner Eisais propose for the weight-loss drug lorcaserin, based on a 9 to 5 vote against it. Arena shares fell nearly 40 percent in after-hours trading Thursday to $2.28.

The expert panel was not convinced that the current data could adequately demonstrate the potential benefits of lorcaserin outweighing the potential risks when used long-term in a large population of overweight and obese individuals.

The panelists raised concerns similar to that released by FDA staff earlier this week, mainly the results from Arenas Phase III clinical study did not meet mean efficacy criterion. The BLOOM trial indicated that patients on lorcaserin lost an average of 5.8% of body weight compared with 2.2% in the placebo arm. The expert panel also noted that studies of lorcaserin on rodent model showed breast tumours among those dosed at seven times higher than the proposed clinical dose for humans, but acknowledged that no such increase was seen in the 7,000 patients treated with the drug.

The committe called for more studies to be conducted in people with diabetes, high blood pressure and other health problems, therefore the trial result could reflect patients better if it was approved.

I just couldnt get over that we didnt have a broader population that was representative of people most likely to get this (drug), said Dr. Lamont Weide, an advisory panel member and chief of diabetes and endocrinology at the University of Missouri in Kansas City.

Arena was not totally downbeat after the news; Arena and Eisai believe that lorcaserin has a positive benefit-risk profile, said Arenas president and CEO, Jack Lief, in a statement. Eisai will sell lorcaserin in the US if the drug wins FDA approval. Arena will work closely with the FDA going forward, Lief said. The company has been studying lorcaserin in overweight and obese diabetics and said it expects results later this year.

The FDA will make its verdict by October 22, and usually FDA would follow panel recommendations.

Arena, Vivus and Orexigen are three companies struggling to win the first approval of a new weight-loss drug since Roches Xenical in 1999. Vivus Qnexa failed to gain the support from the EMDAC with a voted 10-6 against it; Orexigens Contrave (sustained-release naltrexone/bupropion) is scheduled to face the panels judgement later this year.

11 Aug

What Is Actual Working Of Proxy Server

The most common and popular way to stay on internet nameless is proxy server. To accept incoming request of web and forward it to destination are done by the proxy server machine; these severs acts like a middle men of internet which assist to distinguish your computer and destination server. Each computer get connected to net through proxy server or it is a computer that offers online as well as offline services to permit other system users to use web world. So proxy server serve the role of agent between the client (users computer) and server.
Please dont mix up the concept of a proxy server with a NAT (Network Address Translation). Although they look alike, a proxy server does the work of connection, response, and receives traffic from the Internet. In other words, it acts in support of the client computer. A NAT, on the other side, it changes the original address of traffic coming through it and passes it to the Internet. The computer after the NAT, not the NAT itself, does the work.

Technically the difference between proxy server and NAT is as proxy server use transport level 4 or higher, but NAT using 3rd level.
How It Works:
1.When a user on intranet requested for any web page. Actually it requests to proxy server, which forward it to destination server. It also receive data from net server before the client pc, and it transmits the data to user.
2.Proxy servers maintain log report of total network usage such as download, IP address of accessed websites, date & time of access, URL. E.g. Telnet proxy server can trace each and every data passing through.
3.Some proxy servers have to work with unique users. Many people use Netscape with proxy servers. When such type of software is used, that software must be configured to use it with proxy server. Then only intranet users allow using client software as usual.
4.Proxy server not only work as relay but also it can make secured network in office, home. E.g. a FTP proxy server can configured to restrict any type of miss use, means ban download or upload or both.
5.Proxy server also served as time saver. It keeps the copies of web pages .So when user request for same, proxy server provide that page without contacting to internet server. It save time when time is main factor of work.

11 Aug

Microbiology Science Fair Project Ideas

Microbiology science project ideas include: how infectious diseases spread, how the immune system responds to a virus, how does penicillin fight bacteria, and how various disinfectants differ in killing a bacteria.

Science fair is nearing and you want to present something that is unique and challenging. If you want to have a different approach this time, you could try coming up with microbiology-themed science fair projects to impress your teachers. Here are some cool ideas to help you come up with a fantastic presentation and help you get a winning grade.

How infectious diseases spread

Demonstrate how communicable diseases spread into your system. Give a comprehensive detail about the specific pathogen of certain disease. Trace the transmission from carrier, to the portal of entry then to the susceptible host. You may need an illustration of the human body to demonstrate the process. Also explain which factors can promote or deter the spread of the infectious disease.

How the immune system responds to a virus

Explain why viruses are considered foreign invaders to the blood and show which cells from the immune system are able to recognize and are ready to the attack the foreign invaders. Illustrate also how the protective cells can track down and engulf the viruses, and show how quick the immune system responds to body threats. You may need to have an illustration of the body system that is responsible for the defenses in addition to a comprehensive explanation.

How does penicillin fight bacteria

An antibiotic is a substance derived from a mold or microorganism that can kill a bacteria or inhibit bacerial growth. In 1929, Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin, which he isolated from a mold. In this experiment, explain how the penicillin kills bacteria, give insights on how it prevents bacterial growth in colonies with a visual example. You may need a bacterial culture and the antibiotic for this experiment. Ask assistance from a person who is knowledgeable and on microbiology in performing this activity.

How various disinfectants differ in killing a bacteria

This experiment aims to determine which disinfectant is the most effective in killing a bacteria. This experiment is important for households and food business owners to know which disinfectant is most suitable for cleaning their workplaces. Gather different types of disinfectants and a bacterial culture. Test the different disinfectants on each bacterial plates and observe for the results.

Handling microorganisms could be dangerous without the right knowledge, you could get sick or infect other people.Make sure in performing these experiment, you should provide yourself some protective gear and seek assistance from personswho have the knowledge on microbiology.

11 Aug

Searching For A Singer In Kolkata

Kolkata is the hub of art and culture of the east. It is renowned in the field of song ,art and its mix of different cultures. If you want to earn a name as a singer in Kolkata, then this is the place to be. In the field of theatre, art, song , dance , Kolkata embraces every person. If you are keen towards becoming a classical singer in Kolkata, then one must enroll to a reputed school or college where the education is imparted. There are also special colleges affiliated with the government where a person can earn a degree for themselves.

There are a lot of classical singer in Kolkata who are well versed with the knowledge of taal and ragas and the necessary notations. But one cannot learn to sing theoretically unless and until he or she has a melodious voice with its own unique style of singing. The various notes need to be learnt if one wants to be a singer. Classical songs or ragas are mainly practiced in the mornings and in a fresh mind. Songs are mere writings on a paper which is then adorned by the sweet voice of the singer which brings in life to the song. The vital factors required for a singer is to understand the meaning of the song and then embrace it with emotion to make it soulful.

A budding singer in Kolkata must listen to a lot of music from the old and famous artists in the field of music which helps in upgrading ones taste for good music. As the old saying goes practice makes a man perfect is aptly right for this factor. The more you practice regularly, the more you build you skills to learn and enrich. Every raga or gharana in classical music has its own unique style. One has to adapt to the basic features of classical songs and beautify them with his or her own sweet voice. A singer has to have ones own gayaki or style of performance to earn a name. He or she should be skilled in thumri, tappa, dadra, khayal and in different gharanas. Thumri is identified as the romantic facet of Hindustani classical music and is less formal than khayal. Variation of emotions plays a major role in singing thumri.

To become a singer in Kolkata one must work hard to be popular. One should attend various shows and stage performances to become a good singer. It helps one to make mistakes and analyze thereafter. Audience is the best critic and only time will tell whether one has succeeded in performing the song. The more you practice, the more efficient you become. The various seminars and musical functions give you an insight to the latest performing artist and their music. Appreciation by the older people in the field of culture is well acclaimed and regarded as an honour.

11 Aug

Cooking Tips And Techniques No Chef Should Be Without!

Cooking is all about preparation. To take the edge of cooking, whether it is a small appetizer, simple dish, full nine course meal, or elegant dessert, prepare for your cooking a day or two ahead. Plan what you are going to make and for how many people you are going to make it for. Gather your ingredients ahead of time to ensure that you wont have to rush.

To keep your cakes from falling flat, mix dense batters by hand with a wooden spoon. Electric mixers beat too much air into the batter, causing the cakes to fall when they are baked. Meanwhile, by using a wooden spoon to gently mix thick batters like carrot cake you protect the consistency of the batter from absorbing too much air.

Dont waste the seeds from your pumpkins, roast them. Scoop the seeds out, and rinse them thoroughly until the membrane has separated and washed off. Blot the seeds and let them dry for fifteen minutes. Heat the oven to 350 degrees. Spread the seeds evenly over a lightly oiled tray. Lightly salt, and let them roast for at least ten minutes, or until golden brown and crisp.

Using fresh ingredients can greatly improve the flavor in ones cooking. The freshest ingredients possible can add a richness and new level of flavor to an old favorite or whatever one is going to be cooking. If one wants to make a salad, then they should obtain the ingredients the day that they are going to make it to ensure freshness.

If youve forgotten to soak your beans over night, quick soak them instead. Just put the beans in a very large pot and cover with water. Bring this to a boil, then lower heat and simmer for about two hours. This method is just as effective as an over night soak and can save you time.

Make sure eggs are still fresh before using them. Eggs that are no longer good can cause salmonella poisoning among other deadly diseases. You can test an eggs freshness by lowering it into a bowl of water. If it settles horizontally, it is still good. If it rises to the top, it is bad.

Everything takes practice and cooking is no different. It is important to incorporate the tips that have been provided above when you are trying to learn how to cook. By doing this, you will be cooking like a chef in no time.

11 Aug

Reaching Out To Huge Mass Through Outdoor Advertising

What’s the first thing in the morning you do? Open your eyes and right from the bed you catch up with the bill board carrying the smart caption on a coffee brand. It’s no dreaming but the boon of outdoor advertising.

Morning begins with the ad of the coffee and then you take the first sip. Even if you are not so fond of this beverage, the impact of this outdoor advertising will instigate you to try out cappuccino at the break of the day. Well it can be any product and not necessarily coffee. Coffee is just an example to show you the greater impact an outdoor advertising can leave on you.

Catchy and interesting outdoor ads create appeal

The basic idea behind outdoor advertising is to focus a product or a service to a group of people living in a particular region. When a hoarding or a bill board is raised up, the importance of the location is always looked into. Now you cannot really carry out the ad of a hi-fi cosmetic product in a slum area. Again not so expensive body soap will do well in that zone. This calculation has to be done prior to the launching of the ad and the putting of hoardings.

The appeal has to be foremost generated. Without it the outdoor advertisement on a particular brand will go in vain. The business house must place the right Unique Selling Proposition and the target audience to the agency and thereafter the whole process of ad making and ad release is supposed to be conducted.

Awareness through outdoor advertising

You can easily promote an awareness program through outdoor advertising. Articulating ideas and noble thoughts on different missions and drives like environment protection, Aids awareness, child labor, gender issues can be raised up through outdoor advertisement. Here the intention is definitely not related to selling of a product. It is not even creating the brand image. This one exclusively signifies the creating of a general awareness in common mass that provokes them to a deeper thinking.

Well you might defy on the fact that such awareness hardly works. But if you conduct a simple survey in the particular locality you will find 80% has responded to the outdoor ad. At least the majority will say aloud that they have come to know about the thing from the hoarding. What more can the outdoor advertising do? Let social organizations then take responsibilities and play their key roles.

11 Aug

Why Natural Organic Foods Are Good For Your Health

Whilst it might appear like a new trend, organic food has really been around for a lot longer than the foods that we’re accustomed to eating. This is food that is grown and nurtured in a natural manner, so as not to upset the growing development or the person who’s eating it. But with more and more labels claiming to be ‘natural’ as well as ‘organic,’ it can become confusing when you’re in a grocery store aisle. Then when you see that the prices are somewhat higher than ‘normal’ foods, you may doubt if it’s even worth a second look.

What defines natural food?

Natural foods are defined as foods that do not endure any chemical processing, either in the growing procedure or in the harvesting procedure. These are foods that do not contain pesticides or insecticides, fertilizers as well as other toxins.

If you observe organic foods that are pre-packaged, this means that each of the components is also processed using organic methods. Though, you need to look for packages that include the phrase ‘100%’ or ‘certified’ organic in order to know that all of the ingredients are organic. If a package just includes the now generic term of organic, it can signify that only a percentage of the ingredients are processed in this method.

Why decide on natural foods?

Many people are turned off by the elevated costs that organic foods appears to have. And with the lessened processing, these costs don’t seem justified. However, the reason behind the somewhat higher prices is that these are farms that cannot manufacture as much yield as those that make use of chemical substances. Lots of fertilizers will allow farms to cultivate many more stalks of corn, for example.

But when you take away this fertilizer to cultivate organic corn, you may only obtain half as much – and in doing so, the farmer needs to charge more. There are as well some restrictions as to how much money these smaller and sometimes family run farms get from government sources. Without the additional monetary help, these farms may not make any profits without increasing their overall prices.

In selecting natural foods, you are also supporting local farmers (in the majority of cases) that are growing healthier products. The food that you consume should not contain added toxins as well as chemicals. A number of scientific studies have shown that eating large quantities of these kinds of substances can lead to a multitude of problems – some cancers, diseases, as well as other health problems.

The toxins can build up within your body and start to damage healthy cells. And this is no wonder, considering nature never intended for us to eat chemical substances that have been added to our foods. In addition, a lot of people are sensitive to these kinds of chemical substances, so consuming organic food allows them to avoid any harmful reactions they may have otherwise.